Homework on Provenance - Questions

  1. Once transactions are recorded, they can be traced and confirmed as they are never altered.
  2. Normal databases can be edited. Transactions can be changed and deleted.
  3. It will enable better efficiency and remove the need for trust.
  1. Every transaction is written on the ledger and cant be removed or manipulated afterwards. Data can only be added. Blockchains are typically a public ledger.
  2. Normal Databases aren’t immutable.
  3. It enables real-time and more efficient auditing.
  1. The blockchain enabled digital provenance by providing a decentralized database with which to verify data. Because it is decentralized, manipulation of data is theoretically impossible.

  2. A normal database does not provide the same provenance because it is dependent upon trust and open to manipulation.

  3. Digital provenance is a great benefit to many businesses because it allows for automated, trustless data and communication.

1 With blockchain everyone is able to see each step of a products creation/development
2 Normal databases can be altered and its access is restricted.
3. Businesses will be able to track down raw materials to the source for example.

1.makes possible a digital record of ownership of an object.

  1. a normal database can’t be verified without a third party.

  2. allows for easier accounting.

  1. By enabling the viewing and auditing of transactions in real time in a trust less manner.

  2. Human error and a trust formula that is at times untrustworthy. And because accounting and transactions are separate verification takes more time and allows for more error.

  3. More efficient, real time auditing of accounting and transactions together in one place. And by removing the trust layer and making verification much simpler.

  1. By using a decentralized ledger which keep all transaction for ever and nobody can erase or change anything on it. (At least before 51% attack)

  2. because it could be manipulated by central controllers

  3. because they can verify every thing in their Bussiness real time. No more trust and time wasting required !

  1. How does blockchain enable digital provenance?

Transparency, being able to trace the origin of the transactions. Immutable and trustless.

  1. Why doesn’t a normal database bring the same provenance?

A central database is controlled by one entity and the transactions can be altered. You are reliant on trust.

  1. Why is digital provenance such a great benefit to many businesses?

The transparency allows businesses to trace all verified transactions to the source, giving them confidence that the information provided is correct. This could save time and money.

Homework on Provenance - Answers

  1. How does blockchain enable digital provenance?
    Transactional activity is recorded forever in the blockchain. The example of the imutibility of a viking runestone is a good one. Activity is recorded in the blockchain, can be added to but not subtracted from. It is held within the distributed ledger among so many nodes verifying and confirming the accuracy. It is trustless.

  2. Why doesn’t a normal database bring the same provenance?
    Our traditional databases are owned by someone, a person, corporation or government entity. These entities are subject to corruption as are the data contained within and can be compromised intentionally or inadvertently. Auditing is necessary to ensure accuracy, trust is necessary and is sometimes not deserved.

  3. Why is digital provenance such a great benefit to many businesses?
    It calls truth to the table and this should be the biggest benefit. The supply chain of a produced item
    is traced to the source. This should be a good thing in substantiating production and in giving
    transparency to the public.

Homework on Provenance - Questions

How does blockchain enable digital provenance?
The blockchain network acts similar-to a digital stone where each node (node; Viking Stone) connected to the blockchain network records a digital copy of the published blockchain ledger via an one time simultaneous record-update which cannot be removed or re-written once the digital transaction is confirmed to be a valid.

All successful blockchain transactions are accessible via a public ledger and or private ledger allowing independent real-time digital provenance validation of all valid previous blockchain transactions subject to the users access rights to review the blockchain ledger.

The digital record is maintained forever provided the blockchain is maintained or remains in existence.

2. Why doesn’t a normal database bring the same provenance?
Normal database transactions & database account updates are maintained separately which implies these individual database updates appear as opaque transactions with-respect-to-each-other.

Maintenance of the database’s accuracy (provenance) relies on a level of 3rd party trust to ensure each valid transaction is accurately maintained to maintain the provenance, accuracy & continuity of the database.

3. Why is digital provenance such a great benefit to many businesses?
Business transactions often rely on a level of 3rd party trust between two or more parties to maintain accuracy of the database and or supply chain network.

Digital provenance provides a business with a methodology to independently verify real-time all 3rd party transactions removing the need to “Trust”, but seamlessly “Verify” all transactions recorded within the blockchain’s ledger.

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  1. The blockchain enables digital provenance by recording same copy of ledger on multiple machines thus creating an immutable transaction recordings.

  2. Traditional database can be edited and thus doesnt offer any digital provenance.

  3. Businesses now can trust the ‘trustless-system’ of blockchain and subsequently their customers also can trust their business.

  1. Blockchain ensures cryptographic connection between data transactions in chronologically immutable way. By allowing open access to history of these transactions we can determine the provenance of each piece of data contained in blockchain which is basically distributed ledger of all cryptographically connected transactions from its origin block to present.

  2. In normal database, data transactions are not immutable. Items in normal database can be removed or modified which in case of provenance requires absolute thrust in central authority maintaining the database as it is.

  3. Businesses will not need auditing services from some third party and customers will not need to thrust the company. If they all have access to blockchain transactions data, they don’t need to thrust to anyone because they can simply verify transaction occurrence and provenance.

1.) By relying in math. Basically everything is immutable and written in the blockchain, “accessable” to anyone.
2.) Because it can be altered and is governed by a central authority which actions can be easily covered.
3.) Trustlessness… we will be able to verify, prove if someone is not acting according regulations.

  1. It provides an immutable ledger of transactions that cannot be altered after the fact.
  2. Normal databases are not distributed or decentralised in their transaction authorisation.
  3. Businesses can verify / prove the source of their products and in so doing provide proof to consumers. An up/down audit trail.

1.Blockchain enables digital provenance by recording all transactions in a chronological order in a database that cannot be altered once its verified by all nodes
2. Because it relies on trust from the source allowing the database to be changed at any given time
3. Because it tracks step by step every transaction made with transparency that can be verified easily by anyone

  1. Blockchain enables digital provenance cause it’s immutable and traceable. All the inputs and outputs go in an unique (but decentralized) database
  2. Other database can’t do the same due to their centralized control. Their data can be changed, deleted. Data’s providers and users can also be manipulated or hidden.
  3. The digital provenance is a great benefit to many businesses cause it brings trust and transparency
  1. How does blockchain enable digital provenance?
    The Bockchain is a distributed ledger on which new data can be added but can’t be deleted. It is possible to trace the history of transaction of a token up to the first ever transaction.

  2. Why doesn’t a normal database bring the same provenance?
    On a normal data base the data can be edited or deleted. The fact the the ledger is distributed between a large number of nodes eliminates a central point of failure associated with a “normal” data base.

  3. Why is digital provenance such a great benefit to many businesses?
    It allows for real time auditing of whatever currency or good. If all the transactions are recorded on the blockchain it is possible to understand more clearly the provenance of a good or a token. Allowing for better transparency.

  1. Blockchain enables Digital provenance by being immutable and therefore every transaction can be traced back to its origin.
  2. A normal database can be changed
  3. Digital Provenance is a great benefit to businesses and customers can have confidence that supplier information is correct.
  1. Transparency of the data and tamper resistance builds on distributed ledgers.
  2. Data in normal database can be tamperd or manipulated because it’s centralized with atleast one admin.
  3. Transparent and tamper proof data provides trust even without trusting counterparty, could be used in supply chains, accounting & auditing for example.
  1. Blockchain enables digital provenance by making the blockchain decentralized and distributed across a network of nodes (computers, therefore; digital provenance). Since it’s decentralized, there is no need to trust anyone; you can simply verify yourself. If it was not decentralized, the single “authority” could manipulate the blockchain for its own benefit, and you would have to rely on the trust in this authority, in order to trust the “concept”.

  2. As partially mentioned in answer 1, a normal, centralized database wouldn’t provide the same provenance since you’d have to rely on trust in the authority that’s maintaining the database. Since blockchain technology is using a decentralized way of storing the data, you don’t have to trust any authority. You can just verify up against the network, since no single authority*1 can mess up the data.

  3. Again; trust is really the base of any community, society, business and/or exchange of goods/services. Every time one gets scammed, commits fraud or anything like that, it all comes down to someone having to trust the fraudster. If we can take the dependency on trust out of the exchange of goods/services (by switching trust with verifiability) we could eliminate a lot of fraud, corruption, provide more transparency to society etc. etc.

*1 Unless a single authority is maintaining more than 50 % of the nodes in the network, which would be highly unlikely.